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A boiler is a closed vessel in which drinking water or other liquid is heated. The fluid does not boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is generally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The warmed or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or procedures applications,[1 - [2 - including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not used in wetted elements of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western european "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.
For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice transferred towards the use of steel instead, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers far more advanced than those of welded metal boilers.
Cast iron can be utilized for the heating system vessel of home drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose will be to produce hot water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for producing steam, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised temperature exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.
there are two solutions to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method
Immediate method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common
boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed drinking water in kcal/kg q= quantity of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)
indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like
Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:
Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a open fire heats a partially filled drinking water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor generally, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.
Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume remaining above to support the vapor (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by water in order to keep up the temp of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which may be further increased by making the gases invert direction through another parallel pipe or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be studied along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases go through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface compared to a single tube and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or liquid variety.
Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled up with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing drinking water and the upper ones vapor and water; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind provides high vapor creation rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/vapor is included within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator where the pipe is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is kept so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers acquired some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued in to the early 20th century. .
1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the next manner: the firebox consists of an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Inside a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is included inside solid iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Culture of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, design and security standards.[5 -
Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising place are affected from range development and corrosion. At best, this raises energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failing and lack of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal into the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire buildings.[6 -
A boiler which has a loss of feed drinking water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If nourish water is then sent in to the vacant boiler, the tiny cascade of incoming drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by protection vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a strategy to assist in preventing this problem from occurring, and thus reduce their insurance statements.[7 - [8 -
Superheated steam boiler
A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize the water and then further high temperature the vapor in a superheater. This provides vapor at much higher heat, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating herb because the higher steam heat requires a higher flue gas exhaust temp.[citation needed - There are many ways to circumvent this problem, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. A couple of benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its own utilization: increases in input heat range to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There could be useful limitations in using moist steam also, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to flee, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak obviously indicates its presence.
Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temp in this area is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme high temperature in the flue gas route will also temperature the superheater vapor piping and the vapor within. While the heat range of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9 - Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.
Supercritical steam generator
Boiler for a charged power plant.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are generally used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the fluid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that time may be considered a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This leads to slightly less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas creation. The term "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a basic safety by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to keep pressure, as well as for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
Safety valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a sight glass also, water gauge or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is located directly on underneath of the boiler usually, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to avoid the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most found on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temp of the makeup water.
Hand openings: These are metal plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut down fuel to the boiler to prevent it from running once the drinking water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown line: It provides a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float together with the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is made to circulate drinking water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, below water level just, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: With this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Main steam stop valve:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations.
Energy oil system:energy oil heaters
Other essential items
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
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